Tuesday, April 2, 2019
The Anxiety Of Death In The Elderly Sociology Essay
The Anxiety Of Death In The Elderly Sociology EssayThe render below is on the shoemakers last apprehension of the festerd(prenominal) soulfulnesss who ar free- reenforcement and those who argon para setic on former(a)(a)wises in bread and butter-time. Anxiety of demolition is delimit by the British National Health Service as a tactual sensation of apprehension, or dread that an undivided encounters when thinking of the process dying. On the introduction part of the essay, there is a brief treatment of dying trouble in the club. The literature reassessment of the essay has tackled two major persuasions of conclusion c are. The first aspect is the general discussion of closing disturbance among the remote persons. m whatever an(prenominal) mint in the society rescue a light that at antiquated climb on populate consort to fo infra anxiousness of termination as compared to the youngsters, which many a(prenominal) psychological scholars oppose. The second aspect intromits the two main variables that collide with the level of wipeout anxiety in antiquated get along. These variables include being in helpless in look, and being dependent on separates in life. It has been argued that aged persons who are dependent on others stomach high levels of death anxiety as compared to the souls who are autarkical. The essay was undercoat on the methodology and square upings of a consider conducted by Dr.Bharat H.Mimrot on A Comparative psychoanalyze of Death Anxiety of Old Persons in the yr 2011. The sample size was 200 respondents who were randomly selected. The respondents were residents of Aurangabad city, and were selected from those get laid in institutions and those vivacious with their families.IntroductionAnxiety of death is considered as an abnormal or dispirited fear in an individuals mind of death. Anxiety of death is defined by the British National Health Service as a feeling of apprehension, or dread that an individual encounters when thinking of the process dying (DePaola, Griffin, Young, Neimeyer, 2003). In the field of psychology, anxiety of death is considered as a psychological worry that is affected by a number of variables. Among the variables that affect anxiety of death, include the environment that one deceases in, the board of an individual, the ego justice, the religious faith of an individual, the mettle-to-face sense that an individual has for self-worth. In body of working death anxiety of an individual, bulk of studies know indicated that the difficult part is the measuring of the anxiety an individual has in relation to other variables (Cicirelli, 2006). The below essay seeks to address the anxiety of death of the hoary individuals who are independent and those who are dependent on other people. For instance, the essay foc usances on the age and the environment in which the individual lives as the main variables for the anxiety of death. Majority of studie s have indicated that as people age, regard slight of them being independent or dependent on others, they become less(prenominal) impatient just some death. The essay will be support by a con conducted by Dr.Bharat H.Mimrot on A Comparative cultivation of Death Anxiety of Old Persons in the year 2011. This article has been extracted from the Indian Streams Research Journal.Literature ReviewAnxiety of death in grey-headed ageIn the stream society, the anxiety of death among individuals is a rampant(ip) psychological issue, especially the younger generation that should not be ignored. Many people in the society have a perception that at old age people tend to have anxiety of death as compared to the youngsters, which many psychological scholars oppose. When lucking with anxiety of death in old age, it is very important for one to understand old age in general (Banck, 1976). Generally, old age is considered to be consisting of ages that are nearing the average life span which human beings are expected to live.Majority of psychological studies on issues that affect individual at old age referred old age as a late adulthood stage that tend to begin at 60s and lasts until death. In her definition of death anxiety, a rengeted psychologist Janet Belsky, considered death anxiety as the emotions, fears, as well as thoughts ab discover the final event of life that an individual may experience under more normal conditions of life. In old age, people must deal with the possibility of their own death as well as the death of loved ones (Chernick, 1990). Death may also be looked into in foothold of statistics, which supply us with significant figures and details. Even though death most commonly occurs in later years, it may happen at any stage in life.As a common phenomenon in the current society, bulk of people are afraid of dying, especially the elderly who distinguish that lifetime in world is ending. For instance, many perceive that death is endlessly near when one is in old age therefore, their perceptions make them confide that anxiety of death is a common condition for the elderly persons in the society as compared to the youngsters (Dever, 1998). On the contrary, most studies are against this concomitant perception in the sense that any person can be loathsome of death due to the living conditions. According to a psychological surmisal done by Erickson, it is indicated that in the later stages of life, individuals experience what is known as ego integrity. In his conjecture, developmental psychologist Erickson pointed out that this token theory explained that as people grow older in life, they go through a series of crises in life. The psychologist argued in his theory that a person tends to get in life redirect examination when they reach the old age (Epstein, 1979).swelled head entry accord to Erik Erickson is a state when an individual comes to term with his or her life and accepts it. On the other hand, when a person reviews his or her life in old age as a series of softened events and opportunities, thus such(prenominal) individuals never reach the stage of ego integrity. This is when one becomes anxious of death at old age, whether they are dependent on other people, or whether they are independent in life. The elderly people who find life worth brood living tend to have less anxiety on death. In Erickson theory of psychology concerning anxiety of death, elderly individuals tend to have less anxiety of death when they reach the ego integrity level because, when they look back on their lives, they find meaningfulness in their lives, hence have a purpose to address living (Langs, 1997).It is with no doubt that anxiety of death is minimal to individuals who are elderly because majority of studies support the psychological theory done by developmental psychologist Erik Erickson. In a certain study, the Templer Death Anxiety weighing machine was used to sum the level of death anxiety among in dividuals from 16 years to 83 years. N the study, it was found that the individuals who were 60 years and above had lower scores of death anxiety while the younger individuals had higher levels of death anxiety. This particular study was proved that the psychological theory of Erickson was true (Rheingold, 1967).Another study soundless indicated that anxiety of death is minimal during old age. In the research study, it was found that anxiety of death normally begins to be prevalent in ones life during their years of young adulthood. This is during the ages of 20 years to 40 years. During the next age phase, anxiety of death reaches its peak. This is mingled with the ages of 40 to 64 years. At old age, that is 65 years and above, it was indicated that the anxiety of death tends to lower. Form the findings of this particular study it is evident that the psychological theory done by Erickson is supported. This particular study tends to contradict with the expectations that people hav e towards anxiety of death at old age. As indicated in the previous text of the essay, many individuals in the society think that old people are always anxious about death due to the process of aging (Neimeyer, 1994).Anxiety of death in the elderly who are dependent on others and those who are independent in lifeAs discussed above, death anxiety tends to lower when individuals become elderly. though it lowers as one ages, there are two main variables that may affect anxiety at old age. The two variables include whether the elderly person is dependent on other people in life, or whether the individual is independent in life. Being dependent on other people may entail receiving life support such as intellectual nourishment, washout activities, medication, house cleaning, and many other important activities that are crucial in life. On the other hand, when one is independent in life, it means that the individual supports him or herself in carrying out the crucial activities of life s uch as paying for their own bills, buying for himself or herself food, taking themselves to entertainment joints and many others (McCarthy, 1990).For instance, majority of studies have indicated that elderly individuals who are dependent on other individuals in life tend to have higher levels of death anxiety as compared to their counterparts who are independent in life. This is because the elderly who are dependent on others tend to review their lives and find no meaning in living. They tend to reach this point especially when they feel that they are a burden to those who pay their bills, buy them food, as well as looking after them. They find no worth in continue living because they do not add any value to the society they live in but rather consume that available resources without replacement. They have a perception that when they die, the people they depend on would be free at last (Lonetto Templer, 1986).On the other hand, elderly individuals who are independent in life tend to have lower levels of death anxiety. As it is state in Ericksons psychological theory, as individuals reach their old age, they tend to sit back and make a review of their lives. When they reach the ego integrity level, they tend to find meaningfulness in their lives hence they find it worth continue living. This is because of the achievements they may have make in their full lives. Therefore, they feel that they should continue living in order to enjoy whatever they achieved in their entire lives. This is unlike the elderly individuals who feel that they failed in life after they review their lives. For instance, elderly individuals who are independent in their lives tend to find the meaningfulness in living after they review their lives. This is because when they review their lives they find that they have achieved so much in life that they should continue living to enjoy their prosperity (Mahabeer, 1980).They find no problem with them continuing living because they pay their own bill, look after themselves, as well as buy themselves food and many others. As opposed to their dependent counterparts, the elderly independent individuals fail to have the feeling of being a burden to other people in the society because they do not depend on them for excerpt hence they find it worth living. It is therefore evident that elderly individuals who are independent in life have lower levels of death anxiety as compared to those who are dependent on others in life. This is so since it is supported by a majority of studies conducted on anxiety of death in the elderly persons (Langs, 1997).Methodology of the studyThe study was specifically for the old person living at Aurangabad city. The study include institution sector units as well as family sector units. The hypotheses formulated for the purposes of the study were to be tested by collecting relevant data from the participants who took part in the study. unity of the hypotheses tested by the study that is relevant to this particular essay is that the elderly individuals who live in institutions tend to experience more anxiety of death as compared to those who live in the family. The study included both the females and the males it did not sideline participants from a certain gender (Mimrot, 2011).The sample for the study included 200 old persons. These 200 old persons belong to both the sexes to sundry(a) families and institutions, of Aurangabad city. Of the 200 people, 50 were male who lived with family, and 50 females who lived with family, as well as 50 males who lived in institutions and 50 females who lived with family. The sample for the study was selected by the use of random sampling technique.In addition to the selection of the sample for the study, the legal instrument used for the methodology was Death Anxiety Scale. The scale was made up of 10 units and was constructed and developed by Upinder Dhar, Savita Mehta, as well as Santosh Dhar. The split-half reliability coefficient was = 0.87. The scale reliability was determined by calculating split-half reliability coefficient, reverse for full length, on a sample of 200 subjects (25-55 years) Besides face harshness, as all items of the scale are concerned with the variables under focus, the scale has high content validity. The reliability index was calculated by the reaserchers for purposes of establishing validity from the coefficient of reliability Norms for the scale were available on a sample of subjects be to the age range of 25-55 years (Mimrot, 2011).The data analysis for the study was carried out with the help of descriptive statistics including Means, Standard Deviation, and multiple univariate 2 x 2 ANOVA for Death Anxiety.DiscussionThere are significant differences between mean scores of old people living in the family and institutionalise old people on death anxiety. (F = 11.875, df1 = 1, df2 =196 PBased on the analyses that were interpreted in the study, there was a major difference between old age people living in family and old age institutionalized people in terms of their anxiety of death. Based on the mean value interpreted from the study, the elderly people living in the family have high death anxiety (6.00) than institutionalized old people (5.44). this is an indication that those living with their families are highly dependent on their family members as compared to those living in institutions since they have no family member to depend on. This particular interpretation of data from the study failed to support the speculation that old age people living in the institution would experience more death anxiety than old age people living in the family (Madnawat Singh, 2007).The hypothesis was therefore rejected for the study. In connection with the above-mentioned findings, some of the psychological scholars found the ageing process is associated with a number of factors like frugal independence, health status, their role expectation in the family and status acc orded to the elders in the family.From the results of the study conducted by Dr.Bharat H.Mimrot, it is clear that elderly individuals who are dependent on others have higher levels of anxiety of death as compared to the elderly individuals who are independent (Ens Bond, 2005). In this particular case, the independent old people were represented by individuals who were living in institutions whereas dependent elderly persons on others in life were represented by those who were living with their families.In support of Erickson psychological theory that states that the death anxiety of an elderly person tends to lower down envisage the individual reaches the ego integrity level. As discussed in the previous paragraphs, such a level is usually reached when an individual takes a full review of his or her life and finds that it is worth living. For instance, the elderly persons living with their families in this particular study were found to be having a higher level of anxiety of death as compared to their counterparts since they failed to find the essence in continuing living. The fact that they fail to have the urge of continuing living is due to them relying on their families for their upkeep. The individuals feel that at their age they are supposed to have made enough in their entire lives that would support them during their old age rather of being a burden to their family members (Epstein, 1979).On the other hand, the results of the study indicated that the elderly individuals who live in institutions have a lower anxiety of death. This is according to their ego integrity level. These particular individuals find the sense of continuing to live after they review their entire lives. In the institutions where these elderly persons live, they do not rely on others for their upkeep but rather pay for the go that are offered to them, which is unlike the individuals who live with their families. They find the essence of continuing living because they feel that t hey are not a burden to any individual and that they achieved much in their entire lives that is worth continuing living. This particular discussion is supported by the psychological theory of Erik Erickson (Mimrot, 2011).ConclusionIn conclusion, anxiety of death not only affects the elderly persons, as many in the society perceive, but can also affect children and the young adults. Among the variables that affect anxiety of death in ones life, age seems to be the principle variable. The elderly persons are less anxious of death while the youngsters are highly anxious of death. As discussed in above essay, it is clear that the elderly who are dependent on other people in life have a higher level of death anxiety as compared to those who are independent in life.