Sunday, April 7, 2019
The Second World War Essay Example for Free
The Second macrocosm contend EssayDuring the last phase of the Second world contend, the ch every(prenominal)enger in the midst of the unify States and Soviet Russia became clearly discernible due to ideological conflict. While the Soviet labor union accepted Marxism and mean to spread it over the world, the fall in States, as a champion of liberal republic, adopted a policy of containment of Marxian influence and roll back communism. Thus, their ideological conflict soon resulted in a political confrontation. As time passed, this conflict ripened into an enmity and, on occasions, it seemed that an opposite global state of state of war was imminent. Though such a war did non, in reality break out tenseness and competition gradually reached the boiling point. This is known as shivery war. This is, in a word, a brinkmanship which means that the tension may, at any moment, burst into an actual war. So, war was avoided, but at every moment, it seemed that war was in the offing. This is not war, but not yet peace it is like twilight zone, because the armed peace could at any time result in an actual violent war. The Origin of Cold WarThe analogy between what Fredrick Schumann calls Marx Land and Freeland has been far from cordial and even hostile at the end of World War II. This was, according to whatever scholars due to the element of the world into two camps one led by the Soviet totality and another by the USA. This bi polar interpretation of world politics failed to take into stipulation the populace of neutral nation likes India, Indonesia, Egypt and other states which stupefy disassociated themselves from joining in any one of the camps mentioned above.Moreover, the division in Marx Land for instances the difference between Russia and chinaware, and in the Freeland, for instance, between France and USA, were left-hand(a) out of consideration by those who accepted the bi polar approach gained group, because of the all embra cing character of a total war. The study of novel technology and the discovery of A and H bomb had virtually excluded the scope of neutrality in case if two giants USA and USSR enter into armed conflict.The destructive and devastating character of a modern warfare had left very little scope for neutrality because of the determination of each party to develop the war might lead them to violate the national sovereignty of others. But, in the mean succession the rivalry of giants had left scope for even small states like Yugoslavia to maneuver their position and maintain neutrality. Moreover, the monopoly of the secrets of Atomic Power was no longer confined to USA and USSR. They no longer commanded absolute control in their own camp. France and China had not only acquired the A bomb but also we determined to be the makers of their own policy.The existence of the neutral nations in which most of the Afro Asian states belong has served as a check on the rivalry between the giants. W hat is Cold War? The Cold War was unbroken alive by the rivalry of Soviet bloc and Western bloc to gain the hegemony of the world. The Western bloc looked upon the communist countries as totalitarian states and the neutrals as misguided. The communist countries on the other hand considered the capitalist states as seeking to exploit the belowdeveloped countries for lucre and frantically trying to maintain their hold over areas producing raw materials.Their plebeianly opposing views had produced rivalry in the post World War II period. This had not led to actual war, but had produced local undeclared wars on a limited scale. The familiar portrait of the Cold War for mastery globe, however, had not prevented have-to doe with between the West and the communist world. The diplomacy of coexistence as Mr. Schumann puts it and the rise of the neutral nations in Afro Asian countries had progressively acted as a brake upon the rivalry generated by the competition of giants.But the Co ld War was kept alive by the fear of the capitalist world about the ultimate motive of Soviet expanding upon and desire to attack the capitalist countries. From the point of view of the communist countries the opposite camp intended to drop off Marx land. Both the Worlds were desirous of peace because the alternative to co existence in the Atomic season is co destruction. Therefore, the unheated war and the illusion from which both the capitalist and the communist world suffered had cooled down. The Cold War is different from shooting war.Freedman aptly defines it in the following statement, in short there is some reason to believe that the Cold War is not a undeniable preparatory phase for a hot war, but a new technique of warfare. Diametrically Opposite Perceptions of World Situation during Post War Period after(prenominal) the end of the Second World War the United States insisted on keeping her the secrets of the eminent and responsible Ameri hind end statement, e. g. G overnor Earl of Pennsylvania about the need of waging a punitive war against the Soviet Union while latter was without nuclear teeth, convinced the Russians as to the United States implacable enmity against them.The United States had not only the atom bomb, but also the worlds strongest navy, and global ring of strategic air bases while her position in West Germany and Japan brought her most to the Soviet frontiers. The abrupt termination of lend lease aid and the rejection of a Soviet request for a post war reconstruction loan further deepened Soviet Unions suspicion of American goodwill. Under Yalta agreement the Western Powers accepted Soviet claims to Germanys territory and the Polish boundary in return for the Soviet assurance about the holding of free elections in East European countries.After the end of the World War II each side began to complain about others bad faith. The West resented what they called the Sovietization of the East European countries. The Soviet leaders on the other hand complained that while the United States demanded and received freehand in the areas under her control e. g. , Japan, she refused the same privilege to Russians in the areas under their sphere. Thus, parky war is kept alive by the rivalry of these Super Powers to gain the hegemony of the world. Ideological Conflicts The ideological factor made Soviet foreign policy more complex though by no means an enigma.Stalin stood for the policy of Socialism in one country. But after the end of the World War II a ring of friendly socialist states of Eastern Europe was deemed to be necessary for the security of the Soviet Union and communist fatherland. After the war Stalin the Soviet premier began to regard all non communist countries as either hostile capitalist states plotting to encircle and destroy the Soviet Union or as the lackeys of imperialist capitalist states. Viewed in the light Stalinism and democracy became mutually irreconcilable.The conflict between the two sup er powers has often been described as the inevitable duel between rival ideologies democracy and dictatorship. No doubt many Americans genuinely disapprove of communism on account of its rejection of parliamentary democracy and human rights. Similarly, the communists hate democracy as synonymous with capitalist exploitation of the masses and imperialism. The conflict of determine and is not the real reason behind the cold war but the conviction of the US political sympathies that communism is an international movement whose expansion means an accession of strength to Soviet Union.On the other hand the Soviet government firmly believed that the undoubted resurgence of West German nationalism and close US Japanese collaboration constituted a threat to the safety and integrity of Russia. Implications of Cold War The cold war had far reaching implications in the international affairs. In the first instance it gave rise to a fear psychosis which resulted in mad accelerate for the ma nufacture of more sophisticated equippings. Both the power blocs essay to acquire more and more sophisticated weapons. This set in motion a mad race for armaments. Secondly, cold war led to the formation of various alliances during the peace times.Both the blocs formed alliance and tabulator alliances to counterbalance the growing power of the opponent. Some of the alliances which were thus formed include NATO, SEATO, CENTO, War show agreement etc. this existence of these alliances added to world tension. Thirdly, a large number of nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America after improvement of independence decided to keep away from the military alliances sponsored and supported by the two super powers. sooner they preferred to follow policy of non-alignment. Thus, I can be said that the emergence of policy of non-alignment.Thus, it can be said that the emergence of policy of non-alignment is also the direct outcome of the cold war. Fourthly, cold war greatly undermined the cha nces of attaining the goal of one world. On account of mutual rivalry the two super powers were not willing to trust each other and often took opposite stands at the United Nations. This often resulted in blocking entry of certain members to the United Nations. It is well known that United States did not permit citizenrys Republic of China to take its seat in the United Nations only because China was a camp follower of Soviet Union.This prevented the United Nations from attaining universal character and jeopardized the chances of evolving one world. Fifthly, the mad race for armament which was the logical outcome of the prevailing cold war between two power blocs resulted in difference of enormous amounts to acquisition of sophisticated weapons. This adversely affected the development of the states, and prevented improvement in the living standards of the people. Finally, cold war rendered the United Nations ineffective because both the Super Power tried to oppose the action in Gr eece, Trieste etc.because she distrusted the Western Powers. Likewise United States made use of its veto power on the school principal of Red Chinas membership of United Nations. Conclusion But, from the beginning of the 1960s, cold war had been in the wane. A growing detente between the Soviet Union and the United States during the time John Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev eased the mutual relationship between these two super powers. Moreover, the emergences of some non aligned countries like India, Egypt, Indonesia, Ghana, Sri Lanka etc.strengthened the peace-force and they intended to bring two super powers in close relations. Moreover, Chinas distance from the Soviet Union and the disunity in the American camp also materially changed the international situation. Above all, the collapses of the Soviet Union and Sino-American detente have materially altered the international relationship. Thus, it is beyond any iota of doubt that, in such situation, the cold war which emerged durin g the closing years of the Second World War cannot contain the same significance which it elicited during its birth.